Dr. Barry

It’s no secret that back in the day, career-oriented women had a rough time. Many tried, despite cultural expectations, and were discouraged by family, friends, and men in their fields from continuing. Some managed to stick to it through the opposition and make an impact as a 19th century woman. And some found it necessary to give up the whole “woman” thing altogether, like Dr. James Barry.

Dr. James Barry posed as a man

Dr. Barry was born Margaret Ann Bulkley, but chose to live as a man in order to be accepted as a student and become a surgeon. The secret of Barry’s identity was only revealed after his death.

Woman Who Lived As An Army Doctor

Though Barry was apparently a pretty rough character who often got into conflicts (some of which led to duels), he was also known to be an excellent surgeon with good bedside manner. His insistence on better conditions and diets for all patients, including the poor, was also a large aspect of his character.

Find more articles about Dr. Barry and other similar figures in history using Newspapers.com‘s search page.

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President Hayes Wins Controversial Election:
March 5, 1877

President Hayes Wins Controversial Election: March 5, 1877

Conflicting reports about who will win the election
On March 5, 1877, Rutherford B. Hayes had his public swearing-in ceremony to become the 19th president of the United States, following one of the closest and most contested elections in American history.

A former lawyer and Union Civil War general, Hayes had served in Congress and won three terms as governor of Ohio. With a reputation for honesty and reform, Hayes was chosen as the Republican presidential candidate in 1876 and ran against Democratic New York governor Samuel J. Tilden.

In the presidential election that year, Tilden won the popular vote by more than 200,000, and it initially appeared that he would win the electoral vote as well. However, in three Southern states—South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana—that hadn’t yet submitted their results, Hayes’ supporters convinced the states’ Republican-controlled election boards to review the votes. This, combined with a controversy regarding one of Oregon’s electors, left 20 electoral votes up for grabs. If Hayes could win all 20 votes, he would win the election; Tilden only needed to win 1.

Tilden needs one more electoral vote to win

Upon review, the election boards in the three Southern states invalidated thousands of votes from districts where fraud and intimidation of black voters had been rampant, shifting the electoral votes in favor of Hayes. But when the Electoral College cast their votes in December, both Republican and Democrat electors for the three Southern states and Oregon claimed to be legitimate and submitted conflicting tallies.

To resolve which electoral votes were legitimate, Congress created a 15-member commission evenly split between Republican and Democrat Congressmen and Supreme Court justices, with one independent justice meant to provide the deciding vote. However, the independent justice resigned his place on the commission after winning a Senate seat, and a Republican justice was chosen to take his place.

Hayes wins the 1876 election

The commission met in February 1877 and ended up giving all 20 electoral votes to Hayes, which was enough for him to beat Tilden by one vote. The Democrats, however, decided to filibuster the confirmation of the votes. Finally, following alleged secret informal meetings in late February between influential Republicans and Democrats (later known as the Compromise of 1877), the Democrats conceded in return for various promises, including the withdrawal of federal troops from Southern states (signaling the end of the Reconstruction Era).

Hayes was officially named the winner on March 2. Inaugurations were typically held on March 4, but since it fell on a Sunday, Hayes was sworn-in during a private ceremony on the 3rd and then again in a public ceremony on the 5th. Although he was considered personally honest, Hayes’ single-term presidency was tainted by his controversial election.

Not surprisingly, the 1876 election was big news at the time. Find thousands of articles about it on Newspapers.com.

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Holidays in the Comics

Happy Holidays from Newspapers.com

Did you have a favorite comic strip when you were growing up? Search for it on Newspapers.com! You can find comics from throughout the 20th and 21st centuries on our site. The papers on Newspapers.com have years’ and even decades’ worth of comic strips like Blondie, Marmaduke, Little Orphan Annie, Dick Tracy, Peanuts, Garfield, and many, many more. Whether it’s a long running comic strip or one that only lasted a little while, you’re likely to find it on Newspapers.com.

Here are a few holiday comics to get you started:

Dick Tracy, 1983:

Holiday comics: Dick Tracy, 1983

Wee Pals, 1975:

Hanukkah comics: Wee Pals, 1975

Calvin and Hobbes, 1992:

Christmas comics: Calvin and Hobbes, 1992

Peanuts, 1980:

Christmas comics: Peanuts, 1980

Nancy, 1957:

Winter comics, 1957

Priscilla’s Pop, 1947:

Christmas comics, Priscilla's Pop, 1947

What’s your favorite comic strip? Tell us about it! Or get started searching for comics you enjoy on Newspapers.com.

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Find: Memorable College Football Moments

Newspapers.com News, Finds and Tips

For a lot of people, fall means college football, and if you’re a fan, you can find plenty of articles about your favorite team throughout the years on Newspapers.com. You can also read all about college football’s standout moments in history. For instance, are you familiar with these memorable games from college football’s early years?

And, of course, football games mean food. So here are a few tailgate recipes found on Newspapers.com to get you started this season:

Do you have a favorite college football game from the past? Let us know what articles you find about it on Newspapers.com in the comments section! Find more football stories and tailgate recipes by searching on Newspapers.com.

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Amelia Earhart Disappears: July 2, 1937

Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan

Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan

On July 2, 1937, famous aviator Amelia Earhart disappeared along with her navigator while attempting an around-the-world flight at the equator. At the time of her disappearance, the 39-year-old Earhart was the most famous female pilot of her day.

Earhart had first learned to fly in 1921, at the age of 23. Although she had a passion for flying, it was largely a hobby until 1928, when she gained fame as the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean while a passenger aboard the plane Friendship. After this, flying became Earhart’s career, promoted by her publicist and later husband G.P. Putnam.

In 1932, Earhart again shot to fame when she became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic—this time as pilot rather than passenger. In the following years, she also became the first woman to fly coast to coast nonstop (1932), the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California (1935), and the first person to solo from Los Angeles to Mexico City (1935).

In June 1937, Earhart began her biggest record-breaking attempt yet: to fly around the world at the equator. Flying west to east, Earhart made it about three-quarters of the way along her planned route of approximately 30,000 miles and landed at Lae, New Guinea. For the next and most dangerous leg, she would have to fly to the middle of the Pacific and land on tiny Howland Island, aided by her navigator, Fred Noonan.

Amelia Earhart mystery continues
Once Earhart and Noonan left Lae, there were problems communicating with them by radio. As Earhart neared where she thought Howland Island should be, she reported her plane’s fuel was running low and that she couldn’t find the island. The last she was heard from in the air was on July 2, more than 20 hours after takeoff. She and Noonan never arrived at Howland Island, and the massive search effort was finally called off after more than two weeks of searching.

The mystery of what happened to Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan remains unsolved today, though there are a multitude of theories about their fate. Perhaps the most common theory is that they ran out of fuel and crashed into the ocean. Also popular is the idea that, low on fuel, they landed on a small island in the Pacific and lived there for a time as castaways.

Interested in learning more about Amelia Earhart’s life and final flight? Start a search on Newspapers.com to find thousands of matches.

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President Cleveland Marries in the White House: June 2, 1886

Bonnie and Clyde Killed: May 23, 1934

On June 2, 1886, President Grover Cleveland married Frances Folsom in a small ceremony at the White House, making him the only president to marry in the executive mansion.

Cleveland, who was 27 years Frances’ senior, had been friends with her father prior to her father’s death and had helped young Frances and her mother after the death. Cleveland’s feelings for Frances (whom he called “Frank“) deepened as she matured, and after she had graduated college and he was in the White House, he proposed marriage. The engagement was kept secret, and Frances and her mother left on an extended trip to Europe not long after she became engaged.

Frances returned to the United States shortly before the wedding. The guest list was kept small—only around 30 people or so. The ceremony took place at 7 p.m. in the White House’s Blue Room, which had been filled with flowers. The bride wore an ivory satin dress with a 15-foot train, and the wedding march was played by the US Marine Band. After the ceremony, the Clevelands mingled with their guests before hosting a small wedding dinner. The couple then honeymooned in Deer Park, Maryland; however, word got out and the press surrounded them there—which aggravated President Cleveland, who was no friend of the press.

Front page dedicated to coverage of the Cleveland wedding
The newspapers—and the rest of the American public—became totally enamored of the new Mrs. Cleveland, who was young (21, compared to Cleveland’s 49), beautiful, well-educated, and charming. Her celebrity made her a common topic in newspapers, and her image was used (without her permission) on multitudes of products and advertisements. She set styles for women and had a multitude of babies named after her. Per her husband’s expectations, Frances kept out of politics and instead focused on issues such as women’s education and the kindergarten movement.

Frances and Cleveland were happily married for 22 years, until his death in 1908, and had five children together. Their second daughter, Esther, was the first baby born in the White House to a president, while their eldest child, Ruth, purportedly inspired the name of the Baby Ruth candy bar. Frances remarried in 1913 to a university professor and passed away in 1947.

Interested in learning more about President Cleveland’s marriage or about Frances Folsom Cleveland? Start a search on Newspapers.com!

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Kansas Papers

Content Update

The Evening Kansan
Got ancestors from Kansas? You’re in luck. Newspapers.com has recently added more Kansas papers to its collection. So if you haven’t browsed the Kansas collection recently, you might be surprised to find that it currently has more than 190 papers from almost 90 Kansas cities for a total of 4.3 million pages. One paper even stretches back as far as 1840—20 years before Kansas was even a state!

If you’re interested in how historically significant periods affected your Kansas ancestors, there are currently 16 Kansas papers from its pre-state years, 15 papers from the era of Bleeding Kansas, 11 papers from the Civil War, 62 papers from the Indian War years, 121 papers from the Old West era, 73 papers from World War I, and 11 papers from the Dust Bowl and Great Depression.

Recently added or updated Kansas papers include (but certainly are not limited to):

If you want to see more Kansas newspapers, you can access a full list of which Kansas papers are available on Newspapers.com from the Papers page. Or if you prefer to see them listed by city, use the Browse.

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Bonnie and Clyde Killed: May 23, 1934

Bonnie and Clyde Killed: May 23, 1934

Posse that killed Bonnie and Clyde

Posse that killed Bonnie and Clyde

On May 23, 1934, the legendary criminals Bonnie and Clyde were shot and killed by police while driving a stolen car in Louisiana.

Both Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker grew up in the slums of Dallas, Texas, but while Clyde ended up on the wrong side of the law by his teen years, Bonnie seemed to stay out of trouble. The two met in 1930, when Clyde was 20 and Bonnie 19; Bonnie was already married but was separated from her husband. Clyde was sent to prison for robbery not long after their meeting, but the two reunited when he was released in 1932. Clyde initially appeared to try to straighten out his life but soon returned to small-time robberies, this time involving Bonnie in some of his criminal activities.

Bonnie and Clyde, along with various accomplices, began a crime spree that would last two years. They mostly robbed gas stations, restaurants, and stores, sometimes hitting small banks as well, and in 1934 they engineered a prison break. Whenever the police caught up with them, Clyde and his accomplices rarely hesitated to shoot, allegedly killing 9 officers of the law—and 13 people total—while they were on the run.

Clyde with gun. Photo of Bonnie at right.
Bonnie was often portrayed in newspapers as a “cigar-smoking gun moll,” after police raided a hideout and found photographs of her with a gun in her hand and a cigar in her mouth. (Bonnie vehemently denied she ever smoked cigars, only cigarettes, and there is little evidence that she ever murdered anyone.)

Their crime spree finally ended in May 1934 when Frank Hamer, a Texas Ranger, and his posse tracked down Clyde and Bonnie in Louisiana. The group set up an ambush, hiding along the side of a road. When they saw Bonnie and Clyde’s car, the posse let loose with a hail of more than 100 bullets, killing both of the car’s occupants.

Clyde’s and Bonnie’s gunshot-riddled bodies were taken back to Texas, and thousands of people came to see their corpses. In accordance with Bonnie’s mother’s wishes, the two were given separate funerals and Bonnie was buried apart from Clyde in a different cemetery. At the time of their deaths, Clyde was just 25 and Bonnie 23.

Want to learn more about Bonnie and Clyde? Newspapers.com has thousands of articles about them. Get started searching for them here.

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Find: Victory in Europe Day

Newspapers.com News, Finds and Tips

This month marks the 70th anniversary of Victory in Europe (VE) Day in the final months of World War II.

Headline announcing Germany's surrender

On May 7 and 8, 1945, exultant crowds poured into streets across many Allied nations to celebrate the news of Germany’s surrender and the Allied victory in Europe. Huge crowds gathered in New York’s Times Square, London’s Piccadilly Circus, and other cities to celebrate and let loose after years of fear and tension. Although news broke about the end of the European war on the 7th, it wasn’t officially announced in either the United States or the United Kingdom until the 8th, which was declared “Victory in Europe Day” in both countries (the Soviet Union, however, didn’t celebrate the victory until the 9th).

On Newspapers.com, you can explore front-page headlines from May 7 and 8 and other accounts of VE Day in over 150 papers. Many of the newspapers from the 7th hit the same major stories on their front pages. News of the German surrender was understandably Headline announces VE Day will be postponed until tomorrow often the biggest headline, but stories of President Truman postponing VE Day until the following day (the 8th) in order to coordinate with other Allied nations was also major news. Another common news item from the 7th detailed how Germany had broken news of its surrender before the Allied nations had. Many papers from the 7th also announced when and where local VE Day celebrations would be held.

Since the major news had broken on the 7th, papers from the 8th often carried follow-up pieces with more details about the surrender. The biggest headlines from the day, however, were typically about President Truman’s VE Day speech, and newspapers—like the speech itself—highlighted the fact that though Germany had surrendered, the war with Japan was far from over.

VE Day political cartoon emphasizing that the war with Japan isn't over

In addition to VE Day headlines and articles, newspapers from the 7th and 8th also featured photos, political cartoons, and business-sponsored propaganda about the Allied victory in Europe. One of the most popular photos showed the crowds in Times Square, but some papers featured photos of local celebrations as well.

Want to learn more about VE Day? You can find thousands of matches by searching Newspapers.com.

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The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Content Update

The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Newspapers.com, in cooperation with The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, now has issues of that paper! You can find the years 1877–1921 on our site, and if you take into account the earlier papers that evolved into The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (like The Pittsburg Post, The Pittsburgh Gazette, and others—also on Newspapers.com), you’ll find issues dating back as far as 1786. That’s 135 years of Pittsburgh history!

Pittsburgh has a long history of industry, especially steel, glass, petroleum, foods, and coke (a coal product), and men like Andrew Carnegie, Andrew W. Mellon, Charles M. Schwab, and Henry J. Heinz got rich there. However, being a center of industry also meant that Pittsburg was a hotbed of labor unrest, and you can find articles in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette about the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Homestead Strike of 1892, the Pressed Steel Car Strike of 1909, and others.

You can, of course, also find items and anecdotes of local interest such as an article from 1900 about a zebra and lemur being born at the local zoo on the same day, or a short piece about the daughter of a Pittsburgh woman fleeing to Japan from China to escape the Boxer Rebellion. Or you can read about a stranger who returned a missing wallet with $1,600 still in it, or about a Halloween prank with unintended negative consequences.

Pittsburgh Pirates win the 1909 World Series against the Detroit Tigers
You can also read all about Pittsburgh sports teams, including an article from 1909 about the first time the Pirates won the World Series and an article from 1885 about a baseball game the author called “one of the best games of ball ever played in this city.”

If you have Pittsburgh-area ancestors, there are all sorts of places to find them in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. You might find them in the society columns, obituaries, death notices, school honor rolls, or lists of pensions granted. Or you might find them in marriage notices, lists of marriage licenses issued, lists of property transfers and mortgages, summaries of the court record, or gossip columns—just to name a few.

So if you have Pittsburgh-area ancestors, or are just interested in Pittsburgh history, take a look at the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette!

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